Added 2 March 2004. Last updated 8 August 2005: added links to Pedostibes.

Family Bufonidae


The family Bufonidae contains 25 genera and 450 or so species. The following is a list of the genera and their general characteristics and distribution.

Please note that due to the general paucity of readily available knowledge about these creatures, this list is an ongoing work and will probably take some time to complete. Links will be provided from genus names to a list of their species when such information is available.

Adenomus Altiphrynoides Andinophryne
Ansonia , Torrent Toads Atelophryniscus Atelopus
Bufo, True Toads Bufoides Capensibufo
Crepidophryne Dendrophrynis Didynamipus
Frostius Laurentophryne Leptophryne
Melanophryniscus Mertenophryne Metaphryniscus
Nectophryne Nectophrynoides Nimbaphrynoides
Oreophrynella Osornophryne Pedostibes, Tree Toads
Pelophryne Pseudobufo Ramphophryne
Schismaderma Spinophrynoides Stephopaedes
Truebella Werneria Wolterstorffina

Genus Common Name No. of species Distribution Notes
Adenomus   3 Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guiana, Surinam, French Guiana, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Trinidad, Ecuador, Argentina, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Hispaniola, Virgin Islands Mainly South America (not Chile), also Caribbean
Altiphrynoides   1 Tanzania, Somalia and Ethiopian  
Andinophryne   3 Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina  
Ansonia Torrent Toads  21 India and SE Asia Parotoid glands absent. 
Atelophryniscus   1 Nigeria and Cameroon  
Atelopus Harlequin Toads 75 S & C America  
Bufo True Toads  200+ Worldwide except for polar regions Parotoid glands present; fingers free, discs absent. Sole Australian species, B. marinus, was introduced in 1930s. Distinctive as a genus but often hard to distinguish from one another at a species level.
Bufoides   1 Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia  
Capensibufo ? 2 Tanzania, Republic of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Mozambique  
Crepidophryne   1 Costa Rica  
Dendrophryniscus ? 7 N South America  
Didynamipus ? 1 Kenya, Tanzania Compressed snout, well-developed pectoral shields. 
Frostius   1 Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay,
N Argentina
Laurentophryne   1 Tanzania  
Leptophryne   1 Venezuela, Colombia  
Melanophryniscus ? 13 South America  
Mertenophryne   1 E Africa  
Metaphryniscus ? 1 Zimbabwe, Zambia, Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Congo, Mozambique, Republic of South Africa  
Nectophryne   2 Africa  
Nectophrynoides   6 C Africa   
Nimbaphrynoides   2    
Oreophrynella   6 South America   
Osornophryne   6 South America   
Pedostibes Tree Toads  6 SE Asia  Parotoid glands present; fingers webbed, discs present.
Pelophryne   9 SE Asia   
Pseudobufo   1 Malaysia, Borneo and Indonesia  
Rhamphophryne   10 Central & N South America   
Schismaderma   1    
Spinophrynoides   1    
Stephopaedes   4 E Africa   
Truebella   2    
Werneria   4    
Wolterstorffina   3    


Amphibians and Reptiles of North Africa, W Kästle, H H Schleich and K Kabisch, Koeltz Scientific Books, Germany 1996. Outstanding review of N African herpetofauna giving detailed account of each species.

Keeping and Breeding Amphibians, Chris Mattison, Blandford Press,

The Proper Care of Amphibians, John Coborn, TFH, 1992. Although I have been often critical of Coborn's books in the past - some, notably on lizards, have contained erroneous information - this is not a bad one. It is very useful for an oversight of all the amphibian families and contains some information on many species which are rarely seen in captivity.

Frogs, Toads and Treefrogs, RD and Patricia P Bartlett, Barron's Educational Series, 1996. This is a good book for details on the captive husbandry of the most common anurans you are likely to see offered in the pet trade.

Urania Tierreich: Fische, Lurche, Kriechtiere (various authors, but edited I believe by Professor Kurt Deckert: amphibian contributor was Dr Günther Freytag), Urania-Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig. Part of a 6-volume encyclopedia set on the animal kingdom and perhaps comparable to Grzimek's volumes, this volume provides a very useful overview of all the genera and many representative species.

Herpetology of China, Er-mi Zhao and Kraig Adler, SSAR, 1993. Catalogue of practically every reptile and amphibian species found in mainland China, Hongkong, Macao, Tibet and Taiwan. There are few details of the ecology of the animals, but readers are referred to a very comprehensive bibliography, and colour plates are provided for many of the creatures listed.

The Book of Indian Reptiles and Amphibians, J C Daniel, Bombay Natural History Society/Oxford University Press, 2002.


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